The relevance is justified by the wide practice of applying projects in the modern world and the insufficient development of their types and types. To argue the need for a clear separation of types and types of projects, in particular, in the field of education. Among the variety of typologies of projects in pedagogy, to substantiate the need to separate the types and types of pedagogical projects according to the criteria chosen by the author. The main method of research was a critical analysis of the developments of scientists and practitioners on the problem of research. As a result, the variable part of the innovative and research pedagogical project is revealed. The most significant differences between the educational innovation and research project in terms of the characteristics of the activity, process, result are determined. The novelty of the approach is the justification of the types of innovative and research projects according to an integral criterion, namely: differences in the result of project activities; description of their essential characteristics. An innovative project as a type is distinguished by an integral criterion of difference in the result, aimed at obtaining a practical result correlated with all the characteristics formulated in its design. A research project as a type is distinguished by an integral criterion of difference in the result aimed at achieving the truth, obtaining new knowledge (subjective or objective), reproducible and reliable. The selected types of projects can be used by teachers in the professional development system, teachers in the higher education system when developing projects with students, teachers when developing projects with school students.